Articles tagged as "Gender"

Gender

Visser M, Mundell J, et al. Development of structured support groups for HIV-positive women in South Africa. Sahara 2005;2:333-42. http://thor.sabinet.co.za/sama/m_sahara.html

Women living with HIV in a stigmatising community need support to cope with their HIV status. In a process of action research, Visser and colleagues designed a structured support group programme to meet the needs of women to cope with their diagnosis and interpersonal relationships. The emphasis was on identifying their needs and developing programme material to address those needs through group participation and interaction. The programme was pilot-tested at two sites located in two townships in Tshwane, South Africa. Feedback after each session made it possible to adjust the programme to the needs of the participants. In a formative evaluation, audio-taped sessions, process notes of facilitators, and experiences of the participants were used to identify therapeutic elements, the value of the groups and the problems in the implementation process. Women reported benefit from participation in the support groups. A 10-session structured programme to be used in support groups addressing the most important needs of HIV-positive women was developed.


Walch SE, Rudolph SM. Negative affect and risk for human immunodeficiency virus: one size may not fit all. Am J Health Promot 2006;20:324-33. http://www.healthpromotionjournal.com/

Research examining the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviour and negative affective states has netted mixed findings. This study examined the potential moderating role of gender and sexual orientation on negative affect and HIV-related risk behaviour. Measures of depression, anxiety, and HIV-related risk behaviour were collected from participants at the time of pretest counselling. The study was conducted through a community-based, anonymous HIV counselling and testing site, among 185 consecutively recruited men and women presenting for HIV testing. Greater HlV-related risk behaviour was found to be associated with high levels of anxiety and moderate or high levels of depression for bisexual women. Greater HIV-related risk behaviour was associated with low levels of anxiety and mild to moderate levels of depression for bisexual men. The authors conclude that the relationship between negative affective states and HIV-related risk behaviour may vary as a function of gender and behavioural sexual orientation. Better understanding of the relationship between negative affect and risk behaviour may be achieved through consideration of these sources of variation.

Gender
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Reproductive Health

Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, et al. High Uptake of Postpartum Hormonal Contraception Among HIV-1-Seropositive Women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis 2006 May 9 [Epub ahead of print]

The authors aimed to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake, in a resource-constrained setting. Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. The authors conclude that, using existing healthcare infrastructure it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.

Gender
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