Articles tagged as "Cameroon"

TB still responsible for large proportion of admissions and in-patient deaths among people living with HIV

TB as a cause of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality among people living with HIV worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ford N, Matteelli A, Shubber Z, Hermans S, Meintjes G, Grinsztejn B, Waldrop G, Kranzer K, Doherty M, Getahun H. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016 Jan 12;19(1):20714. doi: 10.7448/IAS.19.1.20714. eCollection 2016.

Introduction: Despite significant progress in improving access to antiretroviral therapy over the past decade, substantial numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in all regions continue to experience severe illness and require hospitalization. We undertook a global review assessing the proportion of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths because of tuberculosis (TB) in PLHIV.

Methods: Seven databases were searched to identify studies reporting causes of hospitalizations among PLHIV from 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2015 irrespective of age, geographical region or language. The proportion of hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality attributable to TB was estimated using random effects meta-analysis.

Results: From an initial screen of 9049 records, 66 studies were identified, providing data on 35 845 adults and 2792 children across 42 countries. Overall, 17.7% (95% CI 16.0 to 20.2%) of all adult hospitalizations were because of TB, making it the leading cause of hospitalization overall; the proportion of adult hospitalizations because of TB exceeded 10% in all regions except the European region. Of all paediatric hospitalizations, 10.8% (95% CI 7.6 to 13.9%) were because of TB. There was insufficient data among children for analysis by region. In-hospital mortality attributable to TB was 24.9% (95% CI 19.0 to 30.8%) among adults and 30.1% (95% CI 11.2 to 48.9%) among children.

Discussion: TB remains a leading cause of hospitalization and in-hospital death among adults and children living with HIV worldwide.

Abstract  Full-text [free] access

Editor’s notes: The last 30 years have seen radical improvements in outcomes for many people living with HIV. This study reminds us that in some parts of the world HIV-associated infections, tuberculosis (TB) in particular, still have a devastating effect on thousands of lives.

The importance of TB is widely recognised. WHO aim to reduce deaths due to TB by 75% over the next 10 years.  The question remains: do we really know how many people die due to TB?  Death certification has repeatedly been shown to be unreliable, particularly in the parts of the world where TB is most prevalent. Verbal autopsy is used to estimate cause of death in areas with poor notification systems, but poorly differentiates deaths due to TB and other HIV-associated conditions. Similar challenges are faced when counting and classifying morbidity and hospitalisations. Data are sparse, and determining the cause of an admission is not straightforward, even with access to well-maintained hospital records.  

This review, a sub-analysis of data from a broader study of HIV-associated hospital admissions, is by far the largest of its kind. The authors have been rigorous, given the heterogeneity of the studies included, and their findings are sobering. Among adults living with HIV, in all areas except Europe and South America, TB was the cause of 20-33% of admissions, and some 30% of adults and 45% of children who were admitted with TB were thought to have died from it. These findings are limited by the fact that not all reviewed studies reported on mortality and very few stated how causes of death were assigned.

This paper raises more questions than it answers, but they are important questions.  We are left in no doubt that TB is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive people, but we need to look closely at how we count and classify ‘TB deaths’ and ‘TB-associated admissions’. The recent systematic review of autopsy studies cited by the authors also found that almost half the TB seen at autopsy was not diagnosed before death. Global autopsy rates are in decline. Without access to more accurate data, how will we know if we’re winning or losing in our efforts to end TB deaths?

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Violence experience of women living with HIV: a global study

Violence. Enough already: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV.

Orza L, Bewley S, Chung C, Crone ET, Nagadya H, Vazquez M, Welbourn A. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015 Dec 1;18(6 Suppl 5):20285. doi: 10.7448/IAS.18.6.20285. eCollection 2015.

Introduction: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV) before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and human rights (HR), and the implications for policymakers.

Methods: A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents.

Results: In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings). Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations), and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings.

Conclusions: Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to succeed for the end-users if lived experiences are used.

Abstract  Full-text [free] access

Editor’s notes: Violence against women who are living with HIV is common globally. This paper reports on a study of 832 women living with HIV from 94 countries who participated in an online survey, recruited through a non-random snowball sampling model. The survey comprised quantitative and qualitative (free text) components. Participants included women who had ever or were currently using injection drugs (14%), who had ever or were currently selling sex (14%), and who had ever or were currently homeless (14%). Lifetime experience of violence among respondents was high (86%). Perpetrators included: intimate partner (59%), family member / neighbour (45%), community member (53%), health care workers (53%) and police, military, prison or detention services (17%). Findings suggest that violence is not a one off occurrence and cannot easily be packaged as a cause or a consequence of HIV. Instead violence occurs throughout women’s lives, takes multiple forms, and has a complex and iterative relationship with HIV.

The study population did not represent all women living with HIV, and was biased towards women with internet access who have an activist interest. Nonetheless, the study provides further evidence of the breadth and frequency of gender based violence experienced by women living with HIV. Key recommendations for policy makers include training of health care workers working in sexual and reproductive services to offer non-discriminatory services to women living with HIV and to effectively respond to disclosures of gender based violence (such as intimate partner violence) as part of the package of care.

Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Republic of the Congo, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Transdniestria, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
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Expanding ART access: increasing costs

The HIV treatment gap: estimates of the financial resources needed versus available for scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in 97 countries from 2015 to 2020.

Dutta A, Barker C, Kallarakal A. PLoS Med. 2015 Nov 24;12(11):e1001907. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001907. eCollection 2015.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released revised guidelines in 2015 recommending that all people living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) upon diagnosis. However, few studies have projected the global resources needed for rapid scale-up of ART. Under the Health Policy Project, we conducted modeling analyses for 97 countries to estimate eligibility for and numbers on ART from 2015 to 2020, along with the facility-level financial resources required. We compared the estimated financial requirements to estimated funding available.

Methods and findings: Current coverage levels and future need for treatment were based on country-specific epidemiological and demographic data. Simulated annual numbers of individuals on treatment were derived from three scenarios: (1) continuation of countries' current policies of eligibility for ART, (2) universal adoption of aspects of the WHO 2013 eligibility guidelines, and (3) expanded eligibility as per the WHO 2015 guidelines and meeting the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS "90-90-90" ART targets. We modeled uncertainty in the annual resource requirements for antiretroviral drugs, laboratory tests, and facility-level personnel and overhead.

We estimate that 25.7 (95% CI 25.5, 26.0) million adults and 1.57 (95% CI 1.55, 1.60) million children could receive ART by 2020 if countries maintain current eligibility plans and increase coverage based on historical rates, which may be ambitious. If countries uniformly adopt aspects of the WHO 2013 guidelines, 26.5 (95% CI 26.0 27.0) million adults and 1.53 (95% CI 1.52, 1.55) million children could be on ART by 2020. Under the 90-90-90 scenario, 30.4 (95% CI 30.1, 30.7) million adults and 1.68 (95% CI 1.63, 1.73) million children could receive treatment by 2020. The facility-level financial resources needed for scaling up ART in these countries from 2015 to 2020 are estimated to be US$45.8 (95% CI 45.4, 46.2) billion under the current scenario, US$48.7 (95% CI 47.8, 49.6) billion under the WHO 2013 scenario, and US$52.5 (95% CI 51.4, 53.6) billion under the 90-90-90 scenario. After projecting recent external and domestic funding trends, the estimated 6-y financing gap ranges from US$19.8 billion to US$25.0 billion, depending on the costing scenario and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief contribution level, with the gap for ART commodities alone ranging from US$14.0 to US$16.8 billion. The study is limited by excluding above-facility and other costs essential to ART service delivery and by the availability and quality of country- and region-specific data.

Conclusions: The projected number of people receiving ART across three scenarios suggests that countries are unlikely to meet the 90-90-90 treatment target (81% of people living with HIV on ART by 2020) unless they adopt a test-and-offer approach and increase ART coverage. Our results suggest that future resource needs for ART scale-up are smaller than stated elsewhere but still significantly threaten the sustainability of the global HIV response without additional resource mobilization from domestic or innovative financing sources or efficiency gains. As the world moves towards adopting the WHO 2015 guidelines, advances in technology, including the introduction of lower-cost, highly effective antiretroviral regimens, whose value are assessed here, may prove to be "game changers" that allow more people to be on ART with the resources available.

Abstract Full-text [free] access

Editor’s notes: This is a complex and important paper that seeks to understand the financial requirements necessary to: a) continue countries’ current policies of eligibility for ART, b) roll out universal adoption of certain aspects of WHO 2013 eligibility guidelines, and c) expand eligibility as per WHO 2015 guidelines and meeting the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets.

The authors estimated the number of adults and children eligible for and receiving HIV treatment, as well as the cost of providing ART in 97 countries across six regions, covering different income levels. They estimated that 25.7 million adults and 1.57 million children could receive ART by 2020 if countries maintain the current eligibility strategies. If countries adopted WHO 2013 eligibility guidelines, 26.5 million adults and 1.53 million children would be on ART by 2020, and if they adopted the 90-90-90 scenario, 30.4 million adults and 1.68 million children could receive treatment by then. The financial resources necessary for this scale up are estimated to be US$ 45.8 billion under current eligibility, US$ 48.7 billion under WHO 2013 scenario and US$ 52.5 billion under the 90-90-90 scenario. The estimated funding gap for the six year period ranges between US$ 20 and US$ 25 billion. In this study, the costs of commodities were taken directly from data collated by other organisations.  No empirical cost estimates of service delivery were made.  Nor was there an attempt to understand the cost implications of the development synergies and social and programme enablers that may be needed to increase the number of people living with HIV knowing their status.  The new WHO recommendations need to be actively pursued if we are to meet targets, rather than passively continuing with “business as usual”. 

Nonetheless, the findings of this study highlight the gap between guidelines written by WHO and very real programmatic obstacles on the ground. There is evidence to suggest that universal test-and-treat strategies could lead to substantially improved health outcomes at the population level, as well as potentially being cost-saving in the long-term. However, as the authors have illustrated, it would require increased levels of funding. What needs to be explored further now is how to overcome the logistical hurdles of rolling out such an initiative. Changing systems and practices is costly and takes time. Health workers will have to be retrained, data collection strategies will have to be revised. Expanding treatment may also mean increasing the number of health staff working on this initiative, which has an opportunity cost that may reverberate in other parts of the health system. Substantially altering health service provision, particularly in weak health systems, may have knock-on effects with unexpected and unintended consequences.

WHO guidelines serve a vital purpose of giving us a goal to aim for. But studies like this one help us know if and how we can get there. 

Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, Oceania
Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of the Congo, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia and Montenegro, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
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Vulnerabilities of children living with HIV positive adults

Children living with HIV-infected adults: estimates for 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Short SE, Goldberg RE. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 17; 10(11): e0142580.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa many children live in extreme poverty and experience a burden of illness and disease that is disproportionately high. The emergence of HIV and AIDS has only exacerbated long-standing challenges to improving children's health in the region, with recent cohorts experiencing pediatric AIDS and high levels of orphan status, situations which are monitored globally and receive much policy and research attention. Children's health, however, can be affected also by living with HIV-infected adults, through associated exposure to infectious diseases and the diversion of household resources away from them. While long recognized, far less research has focused on characterizing this distinct and vulnerable population of HIV-affected children.

Methods: Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 23 countries collected between 2003 and 2011, we estimate the percentage of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult. We assess overlaps with orphan status and investigate the relationship between children and the adults who are infected in their households.

Results: The population of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult is substantial where HIV prevalence is high; in Southern Africa, the percentage exceeded 10% in all countries and reached as high as 36%. This population is largely distinct from the orphan population. Among children living in households with tested, HIV-infected adults, most live with parents, often mothers, who are infected; nonetheless, in most countries over 20% live in households with at least one infected adult who is not a parent.

Conclusion: Until new infections contract significantly, improvements in HIV/AIDS treatment suggest that the population of children living with HIV-infected adults will remain substantial. It is vital to on-going efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality to consider whether current care and outreach sufficiently address the distinct vulnerabilities of these children.

Abstract Full-text [free] access

Editor’s notes: This paper is an important contribution to the literature on the impact of the HIV epidemic. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 23 countries it highlights the considerable number of children living with HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa. However, notable exceptions from the analysis (no DHS data available) included South Africa. This, coupled with specific issues related to DHS data collection methods and response rates, means that the number of children living with HIV-positive adults is much higher. Reductions in mortality from HIV due to increased treatment availability and the addition of adults newly acquiring HIV means that population of children living with an HIV-positive adult will continue to increase in the near future.

Children living with HIV-positive adults are clearly vulnerable and like all vulnerable children should be focussed on in efforts to promote child wellbeing. The authors suggest, however, that children living with HIV-positive adults may have distinct vulnerabilities that need to be considered. These include direct exposure to opportunistic infections, social stigma and disrupted networks, as well as increases in poverty. The challenge for many countries is how to identify these children and ensure that focussed programmes are delivered effectively.

Africa
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AIDS and bacterial disease remain leading causes of hospital admission

Causes of hospital admission among people living with HIV worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ford N, Shubber Z, Meintjes G, Grinsztejn B, Eholie S, Mills EJ, Davies MA, Vitoria M, Penazzato M, Nsanzimana S, Frigati L, O'Brien D, Ellman T, Ajose O, Calmy A, Doherty M. Lancet HIV. 2015 Oct;2(10):e438-44. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00137-X. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Background: Morbidity associated with HIV infection is poorly characterised, so we aimed to investigate the contribution of different comorbidities to hospital admission and in-hospital mortality in adults and children living with HIV worldwide.

Methods: Using a broad search strategy combining terms for hospital admission and HIV infection, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, AIM, IMEMR and WPIMR from inception to Jan 31, 2015, to identify studies reporting cause of hospital admission in people living with HIV. We focused on data reported after 2007, the period in which access to antiretroviral therapy started to become widespread. We estimated pooled proportions of hospital admissions and deaths per disease category by use of random-effects models. We stratified data by geographical region and age.

Findings: We obtained data from 106 cohorts, with reported causes of hospital admission for  313 006 adults and 6182 children living with HIV. For adults, AIDS-related illnesses (25 119 patients, 46%, 95% CI 40-53) and bacterial infections (14 034 patients, 31%, 20-42) were the leading causes of hospital admission. These two categories were the most common causes of hospital admission for adults in all geographical regions and the most common causes of mortality. Common region-specific causes of hospital admission included malnutrition and wasting, parasitic infections, and haematological disorders in the Africa region; respiratory disease, psychiatric disorders, renal disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and liver disease in Europe; haematological disorders in North America; and respiratory, neurological, digestive and liver-related conditions, viral infections, and drug toxicity in South and Central America. For children, AIDS-related illnesses (783 patients, 27%, 95% CI 19-34) and bacterial infections (1190 patients, 41%, 26-56) were the leading causes of hospital admission, followed by malnutrition and wasting, haematological disorders, and, in the African region, malaria. Mortality in individuals admitted to hospital was 20% (95% CI 18-23, 12 902 deaths) for adults and 14% (10-19, 643 deaths) for children.

Interpretation: This review shows the importance of prompt HIV diagnosis and treatment, and the need to reinforce existing recommendations to provide chemoprophylaxis and vaccination against major preventable infectious diseases to people living with HIV to reduce serious AIDS and non-AIDS morbidity.

Abstract access 

Editor’s notes: Despite the widening availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated disease remains an important cause of illness and death. In this systematic review the authors summarise published data concerning causes of hospital admission among HIV-positive people since 2007. This date was selected on the basis that access to ART was limited prior to 2007.

Overall the most common causes of admission among adults, across all geographical regions, were AIDS-associated illness and bacterial infections. Tuberculosis was the most common cause among adults, accounting for 18% of all admissions, followed by bacterial pneumonia (15%). Among children, similarly AIDS-associated illnesses (particularly tuberculosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) and bacterial infections were the most common causes of admission. Among the 20% of adults who died during their admission, the most common causes of death were tuberculosis, bacterial infections, cerebral toxoplasmosis and cryptococcal meningitis. Among children the most common causes of death were tuberculosis, bacterial infections and Pneumocystis pneumonia. Tuberculosis is likely to have been underestimated in these studies. Autopsy studies consistently illustrate that around half of HIV-positive people who have tuberculosis identified at autopsy had not been diagnosed prior to death.

The review highlights that the majority of severe HIV-associated disease remains attributable to advanced immunosuppression. This is reflected by a median CD4 count at admission among adults of 168 cells per µl. Some 30% of people first tested HIV positive at the time of the admission. The review underlines the need to promote HIV testing so that HIV-positive people can access ART, and prevent the complications of advanced HIV disease. It also underscores the need for better coverage of screening for tuberculosis and preventive therapy for people without active disease.  

Avoid TB deaths
Comorbidity, Epidemiology
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HIV-associated stigma may impede HIV medication adherence among people living with HIV

The association of HIV-related stigma to HIV medication adherence: a systematic review and synthesis of the literature.

Sweeney SM, Vanable PA. AIDS Behav. 2015 Aug 25. [Epub ahead of print]

This paper provides a review of the quantitative literature on HIV-related stigma and medication adherence, including: (1) synthesis of the empirical evidence linking stigma to adherence, (2) examination of proposed causal mechanisms of the stigma and adherence relationship, and (3) methodological critique and guidance for future research. We reviewed 38 studies reporting either cross-sectional or prospective analyses of the association of HIV-related stigma to medication adherence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapies (ART). Although there is substantial empirical evidence linking stigma to adherence difficulties, few studies provided data on psychosocial mechanisms that may account for this relationship. Proposed mechanisms include: (a) enhanced vulnerability to mental health difficulties, (b) reduction in self-efficacy, and (c) concerns about inadvertent disclosure of HIV status. Future research should strive to assess the multiple domains of stigma, use standardized measures of adherence, and include prospective analyses to test mediating variables.

Abstract access 

Editor’s notes: People living with HIV often experience stigma and discrimination including social isolation and negative stereotyping. Recent evidence suggests that stigma may influence adherence to HIV medication among people living with HIV. This paper presents findings from a systematic review of the evidence on the impact of HIV-associated stigma on HIV medication adherence. The authors identified 38 studies which quantitatively assessed the association between stigma and medication adherence. All studies found evidence indicating that stigma contributed to adherence difficulties among people living with HIV. Included studies looked at diverse patient populations sampled from different countries and contexts. While stigma is heavily influenced by the socio-cultural context, the association between stigma and adherence across diverse contexts indicates that there may be commonalities in what causes stigma and how this relates to adherence.

The authors of this review suggest three possible causal mechanisms of HIV-associated stigma and medication adherence: (1) There may be links between stigma and depressive symptoms, and between depressive symptoms and adherence. Internalized stigma may enhance vulnerability to depressive symptoms, and this may influence adherence to HIV medication. (2) Stigma may cause reductions in self-efficacy – a person’s judgment of his or her ability to organize and execute behaviours - which may influence medication adherence. (3) People may fear HIV status disclosure by being seen taking HIV medication. Fear of status disclosure, and associated stigma, may cause people to avoid taking HIV medication.

The studies included in this review indicate a clear link between HIV-associated stigma and HIV medication adherence. There may be commonalities in what causes stigma across multiple populations. Future research should assess the influence of multiple forms of stigma on adherence, and on testing causal mechanisms between stigma and adherence. 

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Where are the weak links in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programmes?

Reconstructing the PMTCT cascade using cross-sectional household survey data: The PEARL Study.

Chi BH, Tih PM, Zanolini A, Stinson K, Ekouevi DK, Coetzee D, Welty TK, Bweupe M, Shaffer N, Dabis F, Stringer EM, Stringer JS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Jun 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Background: Given the ambitious targets to reduce pediatric AIDS worldwide, ongoing assessment of programs to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) is critical. The concept of a "PMTCT cascade" has been used widely to identify bottlenecks in program implementation; however, most efforts to reconstruct the cascade have relied on facility-based approaches that may limit external validity.

Methods: We analyzed data from the PEARL household survey, which measured PMTCT effectiveness in 26 communities across Zambia, South Africa, Cote d'Ivoire, and Cameroon. We recruited women who reported a delivery in the past two years. Among mothers confirmed to be HIV-infected at the time of survey, we reconstructed the PMTCT cascade with self-reported participant information. We also analyzed data about the child's vital status; for those still alive, HIV testing was performed via DNA PCR.

Results: Of the 976 eligible women, only 355 (36%) completed every step of the PMTCT cascade. Among the 621 mother-child pairs who did not, 22 (4%) reported never seeking antenatal care, 103 (17%) were not tested for HIV during pregnancy, 395 (64%) reported testing but never received their HIV-positive result, 48 (8%) did not receive maternal antiretroviral prophylaxis, and 53 (9%) did not receive infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. The lowest prevalence of infant HIV infection or death was observed in those completing the cascade (10%, 95%CI: 7%-12%).

Conclusions: Future efforts to measure population PMTCT impact should incorporate dimensions explored in the PEARL Study - including HIV testing of HIV-exposed children in household surveys - to better understand program effectiveness.

Abstract access 

Editor’s notes: Programmes to prevent the transmission of HIV from mother-to-child can virtually eliminate transmission when conducted with adequate coverage and quality. This population-based study recruited women living with HIV who had given birth in the past 24 months from four sub-Saharan African countries including Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, South Africa and Zambia. The 976 mothers allowed their children to be tested for HIV, and reported on the level of maternal health services they received for that child, the “prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission cascade”. While 98% of mothers had at least one contact with antenatal care services, only 36% eventually received services considered to be adequate for preventing transmission of HIV to their children. This study is notable for highlighting exactly where coverage gaps exist along the treatment pathway. In particular, 53% of mothers did not receive the result of an HIV test, and so would not have received follow-up services to prevent transmission. As a population-based study, these data provide a fuller picture of service coverage which cannot be captured by traditional monitoring and evaluations systems. These results can inform where systems strengthening must occur along the “prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission cascade”, so that transmission risk is minimized for all children born to women living with HIV.

Africa
Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, South Africa, Zambia
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Expansions in HIV treatment believed to reduce HIV stigma

HIV treatment scale-up and HIV-related stigma in sub-Saharan Africa: a longitudinal cross-country analysis.

Chan BT, Tsai AC, Siedner MJ. Am J Public Health. 2015 Jun 11:e1-e7. [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302716

Objectives: We estimated the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake and HIV-related stigma at the population level in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: We examined trends in HIV-related stigma and ART coverage in sub-Saharan Africa during 2003 to 2013 using longitudinal, population-based data on ART coverage from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS and on HIV-related stigma from the Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys. We fitted 2 linear regression models with country fixed effects, with the percentage of men or women reporting HIV-related stigma as the dependent variable and the percentage of people living with HIV on ART as the explanatory variable.

Results: Eighteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa were included in our analysis. For each 1% increase in ART coverage, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of women (b = -0.226; P = .007; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.383, -0.070) and men (b = -0.281; P = .009; 95% CI = -0.480, -0.082) in the general population reporting HIV-related stigma.

Conclusions: An important benefit of ART scale-up may be the diminution of HIV-related stigma in the general population. .

Abstract access 

Editor’s notes: Focused on sub-Saharan Africa, this study suggests that a benefit of the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may have been a reduction in HIV-associated stigma. The authors combine data on HIV-associated stigma from the Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys with data on ART coverage from UNAIDS. The results are presented for each of 18 countries and the authors suggest that increases in ART coverage are correlated with decreasing stigma, especially among countries with high HIV prevalence. The authors hypothesise that by allowing a person with HIV to experience a healthier life, ART reduces the stigma of HIV’s association with moral deviance. The authors also attribute knowledge to decreases in stigma.

While addressing an interesting and important question, the paper has some limitations. We suggest that participant responses to questions about whether they would be willing to care for someone “sick with AIDS”, and whether they would want a family member to keep an AIDS diagnosis “secret” cannot safely be interpreted as reflecting stigmatising attitudes or anticipated stigma. It would have been interesting to know if the methods used in the analysis could assess the role of ART relative to other factors in being associated with any changes over time in HIV-associated stigma.

Africa
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Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the evidence

Emerging themes for sensitivity training modules of African healthcare workers attending to men who have sex with men: a systematic review.

Dijkstra M, van der Elst EM, Micheni M, Gichuru E, Musyoki H, Duby Z, Lange JM, Graham SM, Sanders EJ. Int Health. 2015 May;7(3):151-162. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Sensitivity training of front-line African health care workers (HCWs) attending to men who have sex with men (MSM) is actively promoted through national HIV prevention programming in Kenya. Over 970 Kenyan-based HCWs have completed an eight-modular online training free of charge (http://www.marps-africa.org) since its creation in 2011. Before updating these modules, we performed a systematic review of published literature of MSM studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) in the period 2011-2014, to investigate if recent studies provided: important new knowledge currently not addressed in existing online modules; contested information of existing module topics; or added depth to topics covered already. We used learning objectives of the eight existing modules to categorise data from the literature. If data could not be categorised, new modules were suggested. Our review identified 142 MSM studies with data from sSA, including 34 studies requiring module updates, one study contesting current content, and 107 studies reinforcing existing module content. ART adherence and community engagement were identified as new modules. Recent MSM studies conducted in sSA provided new knowledge, contested existing information, and identified new areas of MSM service needs currently unaddressed in the online training.

Abstract  Full-text [free] access

Editor’s notes: Same sex practices remain criminalised in sub-Saharan Africa. Gay men and other men who have sex with men face stigma, discrimination, harassment and arrest. Health care workers frequently have no training on issues affecting gay men and other men who have sex with men and are ill-prepared to work sensitively with them. Together these can deter these men from accessing health care and HIV/STI services, increasing their risk of HIV and other poor health outcomes.

This study conducted a systematic review of gay men and other men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings were used to update an on-line training programme for health care workers in Kenya. This previously comprised modules on i) men who have sex with men and HIV in Africa ii) homophobia: stigma and its effects; iii) sexual identity, coming out and disclosure; iv) anal sex and common sexual practices; v) HIV and STIs; vi) condom and lubricant use; vii) mental health: anxiety, depression and substance use; and viii) risk-reduction counselling. The review updated the training programme with new evidence and two new modules were introduced: ix) ART adherence; and x) community engagement.

Health care workers play a crucial role in reducing stigma and discrimination facing gay men and other men who have sex with men. This systematic review provided a valuable step in updating an important, accessible training programme. Reducing homoprejudice and ensuring health care workers have accurate and up-to-date knowledge are key to improving service uptake by gay men and other men who have sex with men.

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People living with HIV at higher risk of developing disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa

The relationship between HIV and prevalence of disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

Banks LM, Zuurmond M, Ferrand R, Kuper H. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Apr;20(4):411-29. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12449. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Objective: To systematically review evidence on the prevalence and risk of disabilities among children and adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Articles were identified from 1980 to June 2013 through searching seven electronic databases. Epidemiological studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa that explored the association between HIV status and general disability or specific impairments, with or without an HIV-uninfected comparison group, were eligible for inclusion.

Results: Of 12 867 records initially identified, 61 papers were deemed eligible for inclusion. The prevalence of disability was high across age groups, impairment types and study locations. Furthermore, 73% of studies using an HIV- comparator found significantly lower levels of functioning in people living with HIV (PLHIV). By disability type, the results were as follows: (i) for studies measuring physical impairments (n = 14), median prevalence of limitations in mobility and motor function among PLHIV was 25.0% (95% CI: 21.8-28.2%). Five of eight comparator studies found significantly reduced functioning among PLHIV; for arthritis, two of three studies which used an HIV- comparison group found significantly increased prevalence among PLHIV; (ii) for sensory impairment studies (n = 17), median prevalence of visual impairment was 11.2% (95%CI: 9.5-13.1%) and hearing impairment was 24.1% (95%CI: 19.2-29.0%) in PLHIV. Significantly increased prevalence among PLHIV was found in one of four (vision) and three of three studies (hearing) with comparators; (iii) for cognitive impairment in adults (n = 30), median prevalence for dementia was 25.3% (95% CI: 22.0-28.6%) and 40.9% (95% CI: 37.7-44.1%) for general cognitive impairment. Across all types of cognitive impairment, twelve of fourteen studies found a significant detrimental effect of HIV infection; (iv) for developmental delay in children with HIV (n = 20), median prevalence of motor delay was 67.7% (95% CI: 62.2-73.2%). All nine studies that included a comparator found a significant difference between PLHIV and controls; for cognitive development and global delay, a significant detrimental effect of HIV was found in five of six and one of two studies, respectively. In the nine cohort studies comparing vertically infected and uninfected children, eight showed a significant gap in development over time in children with HIV. Finally, fifteen of thirty-one (48%) studies found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between indicators of disease progression (CD4 or WHO stage) and disability.

Conclusions: HIV is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the evidence suggests that it is linked to disabilities, affecting a range of body structures and functions. More research is needed to better understand the implications of HIV-related disability for individuals, their families as well as those working in the fields of disability and HIV so that appropriate interventions can be developed.

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Editor’s notes: As ART is scaled-up, and people living with HIV live longer, an increasing number of people will face challenges of HIV-associated disability. Disability may be partly a direct effect of living with HIV, but may also be an indirect effect, for example due to side effects of treatment. There has been relatively little research on this topic, particularly in low and middle-income countries and this is the first systematic review of the prevalence of disability among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The review found a high prevalence of all categories of disability. The majority of studies had an HIV-negative comparison group among whom levels of disability were lower than among people living with HIV. Developmental delay was the impairment most strongly linked to HIV, with prevalence as high as 78% in children living with HIV. To minimize the chance that the observed association was due to reverse causality, the review excluded studies which clearly focused on disability as a risk factor for HIV, although it is likely that some studies still included individuals in whom disability preceded HIV infection. There was also relatively little data on ART status and duration in many studies, which may impact on the association of HIV and disability.  Despite these limitations, this study highlights the need to focus on prevention and management of HIV-associated disability in sub-Saharan Africa and development of effective, low-cost evidence-informed activities.

Africa
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