Articles tagged as "Viet Nam"

Persons left behind: transgender women

Worldwide burden of HIV in transgender women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Baral SD, Poteat T, Strömdahl S, Wirtz AL, Guadamuz TE, Beyrer C. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 20. pii: S1473-3099(12)70315-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Background: Previous systematic reviews have identified a high prevalence of HIV infection in transgender women in the USA and in those who sell sex (compared with both female and male sex workers). However, little is known about the burden of HIV infection in transgender women worldwide. We aimed to better assess the relative HIV burden in all transgender women worldwide.

Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that assessed HIV infection burdens in transgender women that were published between Jan 1, 2000, and Nov 30, 2011. Meta-analysis was completed with the Mantel-Haenszel method, and random-effects modelling was used to compare HIV burdens in transgender women with that in adults in the countries for which data were available.

Findings: Data were only available for countries with male-predominant HIV epidemics, which included the USA, six Asia-Pacific countries, five in Latin America, and three in Europe. The pooled HIV prevalence was 19·1% (95% CI 17·4-20·7) in 11 066 transgender women worldwide. In 7197 transgender women sampled in ten low-income and middle-income countries, HIV prevalence was 17·7% (95% CI 15·6-19·8). In 3869 transgender women sampled in five high-income countries, HIV prevalence was 21·6% (95% CI 18·8-24·3). The odds ratio for being infected with HIV in transgender women compared with all adults of reproductive age across the 15 countries was 48·8 (95% CI 21·2-76·3) and did not differ for those in low-income and middle-income countries compared with those in high-income countries.

Interpretation: Our findings suggest that transgender women are a very high burden population for HIV and are in urgent need of prevention, treatment, and care services. The meta-analysis showed remarkable consistency and severity of the HIV disease burden among transgender women.

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Editor’s notes: This paper systematically reviews studies on the prevalence of HIV infection among transgender women in different countries from three continents. Results unfortunately show that there is a dramatic consistency in HIV prevalence data, which reach peaks often above 20%, irrespective of the financial context of the countries where transgenders live. In addition, there is a common theme: risk factors including stigma, discrimination and marginalisation are all factors which dramatically increase the risk of becoming infected by HIV. Not only are transgender women probably the group with the highest risk of acquiring the infection, but they are also in urgent need of prevention, possibly including pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and of tailored support and care. But these might not be enough, if marginalisation is supported in some countries with a legal environment contradicting international human rights frameworks.

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Integration of HIV and TB services: a model to shift from "vertical to horizontal"

Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

Legido-Quigley H, Montgomery CM, Khan P, Atun R, Fakoya A, Getahun H, Grant AD. Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Dec 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Objectives: Given the imperative to scale up integrated tuberculosis (TB) and HIV services in settings where both are of major public health importance, we aimed to synthesise knowledge concerning implementation of TB/HIV service integration.

Methods: Systematic review of studies describing a strategy to facilitate TB and HIV service integration, searching 15 bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library; and relevant conference abstracts.

Results: Sixty-three of 1936 peer-reviewed articles and 70 of 170 abstracts met our inclusion criteria. We identified five models: entry via TB service, with referral for HIV testing and care; entry via TB service, on-site HIV testing, and referral for HIV care; entry via HIV service with referral for TB screening and treatment; entry via HIV service, on-site TB screening, and referral for TB diagnosis and treatment; and TB and HIV services provided at a single facility. Referral-based models are most easily implemented, but referral failure is a key risk. Closer integration requires more staff training and additional infrastructure (e.g. private space for HIV counselling; integrated records). Infection control is a major concern. More integrated models hold potential efficiencies from both provider and user perspective. Most papers report 'outcomes' (e.g. proportion of TB patients tested for HIV); few report downstream 'impacts' such as outcomes of TB treatment or antiretroviral therapy. Very few studies address the perspectives of service users or staff, or costs or cost-effectiveness.

Conclusions: While scaling up integrated services, robust comparisons of the impacts of different models are needed using standardised outcome measures.

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Editor’s notes:This study emphasizes the need to implement the most effective integrated services for the prevention and cure of HIV and TB.  TB remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases that dramatically impacts on people in sub-Saharan Africa and represent the major cause of death in those living with HIV in the region. In fact, the progressive weakening of the immune system in HIV-positive people increases the likelihood of contracting/reactivating tuberculosis. Already in 2004, the WHO published "A Interim Policy on TBV/HIV Collaborative Activities" with the purpose of providing a guide to establish integration of TB and HIV services, and to reduce the TB load in people living with HIV. An updated document "WHO policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities: guidelines for national programmes and other stakeholders" is now available. The document provides guidance for integrating care activities between TB and HIV health services. However, to put this paper into perspective, a consensus can be reached by saying that integration shall not just be about HIV and TB. Indeed, the old debate between "vertical approaches (e.g. disease focused)" and horizontal approaches (e.g. health systems focused) shall now be concluded and integration of services shall expand to care of other diseases, particularly when, at the horizon, an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases is slowly but surely rising in Africa. In summary, HIV is a chronic infection impacting the lifecycle; with periods of illness and wellness, with multiple clinical and psychosocial needs, requiring lifelong care and treatment with a secure supply of medicines and laboratory tests.

It is evident that HIV care may inform appropriate responses to other health threats which share the same demand for services, training of health care workers, support for adherence, infrastructure and equipment, programme management, drug and laboratory supplies, linkage to care and community involvement. In other words, there is a wide recognition of the spillover effect of HIV interventions towards health systems strengthening, not only to the benefit of other communicable diseases, but also of child and maternal health and of chronic non-communicable diseases (like diabetes, hypertension and cancer).

Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America
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